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Monero Community Workgroup is preparing for the large growth ahead

Diego (u/rehrar), Doug (u/needmoney90), and Justin (u/SamsungGalaxayPlayer) would like to share some exciting news regarding the Monero Community Workgroup (MCW). The Monero community is growing, and so is our support and group of volunteers. The TL;DR is that you can expect some cool things as we grow.

Some MCW History

The MCW initially began as the Monero Marketing Workgroup in March 2017. Diego was interested in helping grow the Monero community, so he contacted Justin and set up the MoneroMarketing subreddit. At the time, the idea of a Monero marketing initiative shocked many in the community, who greatly appreciated Monero's general distance from the marketing efforts by many ICOs and scams around that time.
The Monero Marketing Workgroup focused mostly on preparing educational materials and getting people involved to work on Monero-related initiatives. Shortly after the workgroup began, it transitioned into an area that needed more love: community organization and communication.
Up until this point, the Monero community was focused around the developer meetings and the Monero subreddit. While these are still highly relevant in the Monero ecosystem (for good reason), there wasn't a great way for people to stay updated with the latest news and to discuss non-development items. The Monero Community Crowdfunding System (at the time Forum Funding System) submissions weren't discussed in the same way that they are today, and there was no central Community Workgroup to help bring initiatives together. It was obvious that with a larger, more diverse Monero community, a dedicated set of resources would be necessary to connect all these projects together.
The Monero Marketing Workgroup became the Monero Community Workgroup during the first Community Workgroup meeting on 18 June 2017. These meetings have largely occurred every other Saturday ever since and serve as an essential community service to discuss CCS proposals, hear workgroup updates and news, and discuss new ideas. The Community Workgroup channel (#monero-community) is used for many other purposes, including other scheduled meetings on deemed-necessary items of interest and regular feedback, questions, and chat.
On 7 October 2017, the workgroup hosted its first Coffee Chat, a casual conversation covering the month's recent news and most important discussion topics. These Coffee Chats help humanize the Monero community, who until this point typically were only known by their pseudonyms. The MCW played a part in the Monero Konferenco, Critical Decentralization Cluster at the Chaos Communication Congress, and Monero Village at Defcon livestreams and derived content. It also hosts Breaking Monero, a series that features members from the Monero Research Lab who discuss Monero's limitations.
A year after the MCW became its new name, the newly-founded Monero Outreach Workgroup took over many of its initial ambitions in June 2018. Other related workgroups like Monero Ecosystem have their own communities and functions.

The Community Keeps Growing

The Monero communities are significantly larger than they were back in early-2017, and they keep on growing. In early-2017, there were no mobile wallets, the GUI was only 3 months old, there were far fewer exchanges, etc. Today, Monero has one of the largest, most respected, and most passionate communities. We have the third largest number of developers of any cryptocurrency project, we are the only project with our own DEF CON village, and we are one of the few names that everybody knows. Awesome work to everyone around, truly.
With larger communities comes more work. The community deserves reliable, appropriate resources to sustain this growth. In a decentralized community, this is difficult. Monero Core provides some essential services such as the CCS, getmonero.org, Mattermost, and GitLab. However, they have been unable to meet the growing needs of the community alone. Thus, the MCW has been happy to support other needs to the extent possible: we discuss CCS proposals during our meetings, host several servers, organize Coffee Chats and conference talks, and more, along with efforts of other workgroups. These have become such a significant undertaking, and that's a good thing. As Monero continues to set the gold standard for cryptocurrencies the expectations keep growing. It's awesome to be a part of something where so many people care.

Our Future

The MCW has grown too much for the three of us to organize all the resources we need, let alone the needs of everyone in the Monero communities and workgroups. Thus, we are furthering our commitment and offering substantially more services in the coming months. To get there, we need your support to fill volunteer leadership and support positions.
Expect the following dedicated services from us:
  1. Jitsi server with higher framerate and resolutions than Jitsi Meet, so that our Coffee Chats, conferences, and other events are better quality than before.
  2. NextCloud to safely and securely collaborate on blog posts, share files, and more.
  3. Sandstorm and Wekan kanban board (open source Trello copy) to keep track of, propose, and assign tasks and projects.
  4. Chatwoot to provide tailored support for Monero users with a volunteer support community (also a good learning exercise).
  5. Mastodon to communicate about Monero and other news, so we aren't dependent on Twitter's policies and security.
  6. Flarum forum for Monero news and discussions, so we aren't dependent on Reddit.
We need your help to make this happen! We will form "task forces" to focus on certain areas like marketing, system administration, meetings, moderation, and finance. If you have any of these skills, please join #monero-community and say hi, or shoot us an email ([email protected])!
Doug, Diego, and Justin feel that these changes will allow the Monero community to grow in new ways and continue collaborating. The community consists of many workgroups that focus on projects that they are interested in, and we want to support the efforts of these communities.
To allow these changes, Justin will form an LLC, with him and Doug being officially on the board, and Diego taking an advisory role.
Creating a legal entity serves two distinct purposes. First, it allows us to aggregate payments from many people into a single entity to pay the costs for hosting various community servers/services. This greatly reduces our own workload and out of pocket payment. Secondly, it allows us to aggregate multiple social media handles that are currently controlled by individuals under a single entity, to reduce the "Bus Factor."
Of course, the MCW will remain very much grounded in the ideals that made that made it great in the first place. And the entity will always support the Monero communities, never claim to fully represent everyone involved in Monero. It can only ever represent the efforts of those involved.
Current and future goals of the MCW include:
  1. Provide resources as necessary and reasonable, such as communication platforms
  2. Organize discussions to promote communication, such as Community Meetings and Coffee Chats
  3. Promote positive culture through events, such as with Coffee Chats, the Monero Konferenco, the Moneoversary, and the Monero DEF CON Village
  4. Support other Monero workgroups and Monero ecosystem projects
  5. Provide mechanisms to collect feedback on community, developer, and research proposals
  6. Discuss the Monero CCS ideas and otherwise support the Monero CCS
  7. Promote Monero and privacy education and marketing
  8. Serve as an available community mediatoarbitrator where reasonable
  9. Communicate the broad interests of the Monero community and provide a voice where and how appropriate
  10. Collaborate with other projects, companies, governments, and communities

Monero Community Support LLC

Q: Why does the MCW think that an LLC is needed?
A: For two primary reasons. First, payments. As mentioned, there is existing digital infrastructure, currently paid out of pocket by MCW leaders. Even if a CCS proposal was to be explored, it would make personal accounting and tax reporting very difficult as assets would technically be mixed with personal assets, throwing off capital gains calculations. Up until now this has been a sacrifice of time that we were content to make, but as we continue to ramp up our goals it is becoming increasingly cumbersome, and alternative methods are needed. An LLC would be able to hold these monetary assets as its own entity, and all funds could be kept separate from personal funds, leading to much easier accounting all around.
Secondly, an LLC would allow for digital infrastructure to come under the legal purview of several people, reducing the possibility for any particular person going rogue and decimating what has been built. There may be concern about bringing resources under a corporation, and that this is not in the spirit of Monero, but one thing to note is that all assets and services (noted above) are FOSS/CC. Meaning if at any time a community doesn't care for what the MCW accomplishes under this LLC, they can simply start their own infrastructure with low switching costs. Once again: EVERYTHING IS FOSS/CC.
Q: Why not a nonprofit, cooperative, or other type of organization?
A: While not out of the question, these take additional effort. We hope to grow into these organization types with the help of others. However certain registrations take a lot of time and effort, plus has quite significant restrictions on activities. The LLC will allow us the flexibility and convenience we need now, especially when we currently have no income anyway.

Looking Ahead

The MCW has a mountain range of opportunities ahead of it, as do all Monero communities and workgroups. We hope that our efforts are of use to you and others, and we hope that you join us in making something great :)
Justin, Diego, and Doug
submitted by SamsungGalaxyPlayer to Monero [link] [comments]

An In-Depth Guide to: How do I Fix my Ledger Nano’s Stuck Ethereum Transaction?!?!?! (It’s Been Stuck for Weeks and NOTHING Traditional has Worked!!!!) As Well as: How Do I Choose My Nonce??? I’ve Tried MetaMask, MEW/MyEtherWallet, and Others, but Nothing is Working Correctly!!! I’m Dying by Stress!

So, if you were like me 1-2 months ago, you’ve probably already gone through 2,or 3, ...or 40 articles and guides that probably say something like:
“YeP, eVeRy EtHeReUm UsEr WiLl EvEnTuAlLy HaVe ThE LoW-gAs ExPeRiEnCe, YoU’rE nOt AlOnE! DoN’t FrEaK OuT tHoUgH; ThErE iS a WaY tO fIx It!”
Chances are, every time you read another useless article, you want to kill the nearest inanimate object, even though it was never alive in the first place. Nonetheless, you’re gonna kill it as much as it can be killed, holding nothing back; or, you’re just plotting to and slowly getting closer to executing the plan (and the object) every time you are insulted once again.
However, if you have the ability to download software (MyCryptoWallet) on a PC, it should be safe to relax now. I think you’ve finally found some good news, because I am 99.99...% sure this will work for the issue that so many people are having at this time, around the end of the month of May, year 2020.
More and more people are likely to be having this issue soon, since Ethereum's gas prices have been insanely high lately as well as having 300% price changes in a matter of minutes; Etherscan’s Gas tracker is nearly uselessly-inaccurate at this time. I've heard that there's a congestion attack; that was said a week ago, and it appears to be ongoing... (I can't think of any other suspect besides Justin Sun to blame it on... it must be incredibly expensive to overload the blockchain for this long... I may be wrong though...)
 
Let’s begin
For myself, I was trying to send an ERC20 token when this dreadful issue attacked. Specifically, the token was either BSOV or GRT; I sent them 1 after the other and the first succeeded, and the second one took over a week.
(They’re both great tokens in my opinion and deserve much more attention than they’ve been getting. BSOV is nearing its 1 year anniversary as I write this, and GRT is still in its 90 day community-development progress test, so of course I'm gonna take this opportunity to "shill" them; they are great tokens with great communities).
I was able to finally fix it, after a week of mental agony (also the txn finally processed 1-2 hours before I found the solution, robbing me of the gratitude of fixing it myself... (╯‵□′)╯︵┻━┻ ...but now I guess I can hopefully save some of you the headaches that I endured... ) I’m providing the ability to do the same, in a step by step guide.
Why did I go through all of this trouble? I'd fault the fact that I have ADHD and autism, which in my case can multiply each other’s intensity and cause me to “hyper-focus” on things, much much more than most with the same qualities, intentionally or not. Adderall is supposed to give me a bit of control over it, but except for in a very-generalized way, it’s still 90% up to chance and my default-capabilities to allow me control over my attention with self-willpower. But also Karma and Moons pls... ʘ‿ʘ
 
  1. In MyCrypto, (I'm using the Windows 10 app, version 1.7.10) you will open to a screen that says "How would you like to access your wallet?". Choose Ledger, of course. (Unless your here for some non-ledger issue? Idk why you would be but ok.)
  2. On the next screen (having your nano already plugged in, unlocked, and opened into the Ethereum app) click "Connect to Ledger Wallet"
  3. A screen overlay should appear, titled: "Select an Address". Here is where it may get confusing for some users. Refer to "AAA" below to know how to find your account. (Geez, sorry lol that was a huge amount of info for a reddit reply; I might've over-elaborated a little bit too much. but hey it's valuable information nonetheless!)
  4. After escaping the "AAA" section, you'll have accessed your account with MyCrypto. Awesome! To find your ERC20 tokens, (slight evil-laughter is heard from an unidentifiable origin somewhere in the back of your mind) go to "AAB".
  5. (You may have decided to find the token(s) on your own, rather than daring to submit to my help again; if so, you may pity those who chose the other path... ~~( ̄▽ ̄)~~) Now, once you've added your token, you should revert your attention to the account's transfer fill-out form!
  6. I'll combine the steps you probably understood on your own, already. Put in the address that your stuck transaction is still trying to send currency to. If an ERC20 token is involved, use the drop-down menu to change "ETH" to the token in trouble. Input your amount into the box labeled... wait for it... "Amount". Click on "+Advanced".
  7. Refer to Etherscan.com for the data you will need. Find the page for your "transaction(txn) hash/address" from the transaction history on the wallet/Ethereum-manager you used to send from. If that is unavailable, put your public address that your txn was sent from into the search tool and go to its info page; you should be able to find the pending txn there. Look to open the "more details" option to find the transaction's "Nonce" number.
  8. Put the nonce in the "Nonce" box on MyCrypto; you will contest the pending txn with a new txn that offers larger gas fees, by using the same nonce. If (but most likely "When") the new transaction is processed first, for being more miner-beneficial, the nonce will then be completed, and the old transaction will be dropped because it requests an invalid, now-outdated nonce. Your account will soon be usable!
  9. Go to the Gas Tracker, and it may or may not provide an informative reading. Choose whatever amount you think is best, but choose wisely; if you're too stingy it may get stuck again, and you'd need to pay another txn's gas to attempt another txn-fix.
  10. At the time I write this, I'd recommend 50-100 gwei; to repeat myself, gas requirements are insane right now. To be safe, make the gas limit a little higher than MCW's automatic calculation, you may need to undo the check-mark for "Automatically Calculate Gas Limit".
  11. Press "Send Transaction"!!!
  12. You will need to validate the action through your nano. It will have you validate three different things if you are moving an ERC20 Token. It's a good idea to verify accuracy, as always.
 
Well, I hope this worked for you! If not, you can let me know in a reply and I'll try to figure it out with you. I like making these in-depth educational posts, so if you appreciate it please let me know; I'll probably make more posts like this in the future!
( Surely this is at least far better than Ledger's "Support" article where they basically just tell you "Yeah, we haven't bothered to make a way to manually select nonces. I guess we might try to make that available for Bitcoin accounts at some point in the future; who knows? lol"... that's not infuriating at all, right?)
 
AAA:
Before I tell you how to find your address, I will first make it clear, within the italicized text, exactly which address you are looking for, if you are not already sure:
You may also skip the text written in italics if your issue does not include an ERC20 token, if you wish.
Ledger Live can confuse some users with its interface. On LL, to manage an ERC20 token, you first must go to your Ethereum account and add the token. When you then click on the added token under "Tokens" below the graph chart for your account's ETH amount over time, the screen will then open a new screen, that looks just the same, except focused on the specific ERC20 token. To confuse users further, there is then an option to "Star account", which then add the ETH icon with the ERC20 token's first letter or symbol overlapping, onto the easy access sidebar, as if it was another account of similar independency to the ETH account it was added to.
This improperly displays the two "accounts" relation to each other.
Your ERC20 holdings (at least for any and all ERC20 that I know of) are "held" in the exact-same address as the Ethereum address it was added to, which also "holds" any Ether you've added to it. You send both Ether (ETH) and any ERC20 Tokens to and from only Ethereum addresses of equivalent capabilities, in both qualities and quantities. In all basic terms and uses, they are the same.
So, to know what the problematic account's address is, find the address of the Ethereum account it was added to in Ledger Live.
Now, to find your address on MyCrypto, the most reliable way to find it, that I am aware of, is this:
Open Ledger Live. Go to the screen of your Ethereum address (again, this is the one that you added your ERC20 token, if applicable. If you're not dealing with an ERC20 token, you may ignore everything I've put in Italics). Click on "Edit account"; this is the icon next to the star that may look like a hex-wrench tool. On the new screen-overlay, you will see "> ADVANCED LOGS". Click on the ">" and it will point down while revealing a drop-down with some data that you may or may not recognize/understand. Likely to be found indented and in the middle-ish area, you will see this line, or something hopefully similar:
"freshAddressPath": "44'/60'/X'/0/0",
The "X" will probably be the only thing that changes, and the actual data will have a number in its place; it will not be a letter. Let's now put that line to use in MyCrypto:
Take the 44'/60'/X'/0/0 , and make sure you DO NOT copy the quotation marks, or that comma at the end either.
You can do this before or after copying and/or pasting, but drop the second "/0" at the end; it was not necessary in my case, I expect that you won't need it either, and will probably just make MyCrypto see it as an invalid input.
Okay, now go back to the "Select an Address" screen-overlay in MyCrypto.
Next to "Addresses", click on the box on the right, and you should be shown a list of options to select from in a drop-down menu.
Scroll all the way down, and you should find the "Custom" option at the very bottom. Select it.
A new box will appear; probably directly to the right of the now-shortened box that now displays the "Custom" option that you just selected. This box will offer an interface for typed input. ...yep... once again, believe it or not, you should click it.
Type " m/ ", no spaces before or after.
Type in or paste the data we retrieved from ledger live.
The box should now hold this:
m/44'/60'/X'/0
Again, X should be a number. In fact, that number is probably equal to the number of Ethereum (not including any ERC20 wannabe) accounts that you've made on Ledger Live before making the one we're working on right now! (1st Eth. Acc. would have: X = 0, 2nd: X = 1, 3rd: X = 2, ...)
Make sure you've included every apostrophe ( ' ), and solidus ( / ); there is NO APOSTROPHE for the "m" at the start and the "/0" at the end!
If you press the enter key or click on the check-mark to the right of where you typed, the appropriate addresses will be generated, and the address you created through Ledger Live should be the first one on the list!
Select your address and press "Unlock", and you are now accessing your account through the MyCrypto app's interface!
 
AAB:
In order to access your ERC20 token, you will need to add them first.
You may have to scroll down, but on the right-side of your unlocked account screen, you'll see a box with "Token Balances" as its header.
Click "Scan for tokens". This may take a short bit of time, and when it's done it may or may not display your ERC20 token. If it worked, you can head on back to the main part.
If you got the result I did, it won't display your token, or, if our result was exactly the same, it won't display any at all. However, you should now have the "Add Custom Token" option available, so see where that takes you.
You should discover four boxes, specified in order (Address/ Decimals / Token_Symbol / Balance). You may only need to fill in the "Address" box, but if you need to fill others, you'll find those with the token's address; here's 2 ways to find it, if you don't already know.
Method I:
Since you've probably already been managing your token with Ledger Live, you can go to the LL screen of your "account" for that token; Right next to the account's icon, and directly above the name, you'll see:
Contract: 0x??????...????????
Yes, go on; click it. You'll find the token's page on Etherscan; this was just a shortcut to the same place that both of the two previously referenced methods lead to. Skip to method... III?
Method II:
Go to Etherscan.com, or a similar Ethereum-blockchain-monitoring website, if you have a different preference. Search for the name of your token, and you should be able to see it as a search result. Activate your search manually of by selecting search option. Continue on with Method III.
Method III (Iⅈ what makes you think there was a third method? I said 2!):
At this point, you should find the "contract address" somewhere on the screen. This is the identity of the creature that breathes life into the token, allowing it to exist within the world of Ethereum. Steal it, and tell MyCrypto that you've left some of "your" tokens in the address of your ledger's Ethereum account. MyCrypto will trust and believe you without any concern or doubt, just by putting "your" contract address in the box for "Address"; it's almost too easy!
Well whaddya know, this one isn't actually too long! Don't tell anyone who may have taken a little longer whilst finding out how to do it themselves, though. There's value in trying to do something on your own, at least at first, so I'll let them think they made the right choice (¬‿¬). But take this star for humbling yourself enough to seek further help when you need it, since that is a very important life skill as well!
(o゜▽゜)o☆
Now, back to the useful stuff at the top...
 
EDIT: A comment below made me realize that this info should be added too. Here is my reply to the comment saying I could just use MetaMask. I said in the title that this guide is for questions where MEW and MetaMask aren’t working, but I guess it’s easy to miss. I used my u/caddark account to respond:
(Using this account because u/caddarkcrypto doesn’t meet the karma/age standards to comment; the post had to be manually approved.)
I guess I didn’t make it entirely clear; sorry:
The target audience for this guide is anyone with a stuck Ethereum transaction that was initiated through Ledger Live AND are experiencing the same difficulties I had encountered while trying to fix this issue for myself.
This wasn’t any regular stuck Ethereum transaction. Apparently before, there was an issue that made a Ledger Nano nearly impossible to connect to MetaMask (which is also Brave Browser’s integrated “crypto wallet” for the desktop version) and/or MEW (also perhaps any other browser wallets made for chrome and/or brave) that I heard was supposed to be fixed in a recent update. It might’ve been mostly patched, idk, but during my experience, (in which I was using the latest version of Ledger Live that is available right now,) that issue still remained.
The really weird part was that it successfully connected to the browser wallets again after I fixed the stuck transaction. At first I thought that somehow the txn was what was bugging the connection. However, later, during no txn issues, I was again unable to connect.
Seeing the same connection error again later, I opened up the MCW app I downloaded the day before, and was going to just use that. While in the process of operating MCW, I suddenly had another idea to try for the browser wallet so I went back to that just to quickly test it.
The browser wallet worked perfectly...
I don’t know how, but I think that somehow, something in MCW’s software, makes the browser wallets work. They don’t work for me without having MCW opened in the background first.
EDIT 2: Markdown decided to stop working after I did the first edit... I might fix it tomorrow... how did that happen though??? What did I do?
EDIT 3: nvm, I'm just fixing it now; I won't get much sleep tonight I guess.
submitted by CaddarkCrypto to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Ethereum 2.0: Why, How And Then?

Ethereum 2.0: Why, How And Then?
Why update Ethereum? One problem of the Ethereum network that the update should solve is scalability. At the moment, its blockchain can perform to 15 transactions per second, which is over two times more than that of bitcoin. However, this speed is still not enough for a large number of users. For example, the Visa payment system can perform up to 24 thousand transactions per second.
Adding an Optimistic Rollup technology will help to solve the scalability problem. According to Vitalik Buterin, the creator of Ethereum, its implementation will occur after the network’s update and will increase its throughput to 1000 transactions per second.
by StealthEX
Another solution to this problem is a change in the algorithm. Currently, Ethereum runs on the same protocol as Bitcoin, Proof-of-Work, confirmation of transactions in the cryptocurrency network occurs using the computing power of processors.
Using the Proof-of-Work algorithm limits the growth of the Ethereum network bandwidth. To withstand a large load, more miners are needed, but the growth of their number slows down since it becomes more difficult to mine cryptocurrency and, consequently, less profitable.
This is the reason the Ethereum development team is planning to switch to the Proof-of-Stake algorithm. Unlike the PoW, it does not require the use of computing power to confirm blocks. Instead of miners, transactions will be confirmed by validators. To become a validator, the user should have 32 ETH and install a special client. From a technical point of view, this is easier than buying mining devices and maintaining their functionality, as well as looking for access to cheap electricity. Thus, the system will no longer need expensive hardware.
The main solution to the scalability problem will be to implement sharding. Current Ethereum network is a unified database. After the update, the blockchain will be divided into autonomous, interacting blocks — shards, each of which will process particular transactions and smart contracts, which, however, will be recognized by the entire Ethereum blockchain. Nodes that form the shard process information separately, this allows maintaining the principle of decentralization. This is important since the risk of centralization is another big problem of the old algorithm.
Since the complexity of mining has increased over time, and now this process requires having expensive equipment and access to cheap electricity, small participants can not afford to stay in the game. In such conditions, big pools of miners that can provide higher productivity have a decisive advantage. For example, in April, more than 50% of the computing power of the Ethereum network was provided by only two mining pools. This creates a significant risk of centralization and “51% attacks”.
Validators will confirm transactions and get rewards in the form of passive income. According to the project’s roadmap, this amount will vary from 1.81% to 18.1%. The profitability of the stacking will depend on the number of validators. The more of them, the smaller the amount they get. However, there will be some costs. In the same Ethereum 2.0 roadmap, developers mentioned that the cost of validating transactions, based on rough calculations, will be about $180 per year. One of the developers of the project, Justin Drake, predicts that on average the validator will receive an income of 5% per year.

What is the estimated Ethereum 2.0 release date?

The launch of Ethereum 2.0 will take place gradually, in six stages, the “zero” of which is expected this summer. However, it is worth noting that due to finding vulnerabilities, the dates have already been shifted several times–initially, the transition to the new version was planned in 2019.
One of the developers of the project, Afri Schoedon, said that the launch could be postponed to 2021. According to him, under favourable circumstances, the main network can be presented in November of this year, but there are certain difficulties in this.
Schoedon explained that before launching ETH 2.0, all of its clients must be brought to the same specifications. After that, the developer’s team needs to open a unified deposit contract so that users can transfer their assets from the old chain to the new one. Between these stages, developers also need additional time, so they could test all aspects of the new system.
As it usually happens, there’s going to be two parallel blockchains as a result of the hard fork. The first one, ETH1, will continue to work using an old protocol, while the update will be implemented on ETH2. Users will be able to transfer their coins from the old blockchain to the new one, but not vice versa. The appearance of sharding will allow developers to move to phase 1.5 — during this phase, ETH1 will merge with ETH2, becoming one of the 64 “shards” of the updated blockchain. In the second phase, smart contracts become available on ETH2, which can be considered the full start of its economic activity.

And what are expectations?

Updating the Ethereum network will increase its technical capabilities, namely, it will speed up and reduce the cost of transactions, as well as make the blockchain less vulnerable for centralization process.
Currently, the absolute majority of decentralized finance projects are developed using the Ethereum platform. The Ethereum 2.0 release will probably attract even more partners who will use the blockchain for their projects.
Ryan Watkins, Messari Analysis company’s researcher, highly values the importance of updating.
“ETH 2.0 is a much stronger catalyst than the Bitcoin halving simply because it’s an uncertain and fundamental change.” — Ryan Watkins wrote on his Twitter account
And the part about uncertainty is hard to disagree with. Of course, there are some concerns about the bright Ethereum future. The coming hard fork carries with it potential negative consequences. For example, after switching to the PoS algorithm, the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) may well admit Ethereum as a security, which will lead to legal complications similar to those faced by Pavel Durov when trying to launch his TON blockchain platform.
For now, ETH is the most popular coin for mining at home, and most of these miners will probably just leave the network.
There is also a risk that the price of Ethereum may fall. To receive passive income for storing ETH, the user will not only need to have 32 coins but also block them through a special transaction. They will not be able to withdraw these blocked funds immediately. As stated in the project roadmap, the cryptocurrency withdrawal process will take at least 18 hours. This could take even more time if many users request the return of tokens at the same time. Thus, if ETH falls in price, it will be impossible to sell it immediately, and there is a risk of losing some capital and all the income received from stacking.
Nevertheless, investors are mostly optimistic — the volume of Ethereum options on the Deribit exchange has grown to a historical high, which indicates confidence in the future of Ethereum project. The ETH price is also growing, having overcome the consequences of the March collapse of cryptocurrencies.
Most experts agree that Ethereum price will grow after the update. On the one hand, the altcoin will become more expensive, as it will become a more attractive investment. On the other hand, the offer will decrease, as users will start transferring coins from the first version of the network to the second, to block them for passive income.
If you want to participate in the future fate of the ETH project, you can buy Ethereum using our service. We provide fast, anonymous and limitless swaps between over 250 cryptocurrencies. Just go to StealthEX and follow these easy steps:
✔ Choose the pair and the amount for your exchange. For example BTC to ETH.
✔ Press the “Start exchange” button.
✔ Provide the recipient address to which the coins will be transferred.
✔ Move your cryptocurrency for the exchange.
✔ Receive your coins.
Follow us on Medium, Twitter, Facebook, and Reddit to get StealthEX.io updates and the latest news about the crypto world. For all requests message us via [[email protected]](mailto:suppor[email protected]).
The views and opinions expressed here are solely those of the author. Every investment and trading move involves risk. You should conduct your own research when making a decision.
Original article was posted on https://stealthex.io/blog/2020/06/30/ethereum-2-0-why-how-and-then/.
submitted by Stealthex_io to StealthEX [link] [comments]

An analysis on Penguin Magic user reviews

Hello,
To practise some programming, I made an analysis of the user reviews left on penguin magic. I thought you could be interested in some of the results. It made me check a lot of products that I did not know about.
I excluded the reviews for expos and gift cards to analyse only physical items and tricks. I investigated only the items with at least one review. I combined items as Penguin did. This left me with 87761 reviews for 11318 items.
50 Most Reviewed Items
Item Rating Review Count
Born to Perform Card Magic by Oz Pearlman 4.87 556
Invisible Deck 4.70 506
Self Tying Shoelace by Jay Noblezada 4.74 373
Melt 2.0 by Matthew Johnson 4.65 348
Marked Cards 4.67 344
The Stealth Pen presented by Rick Lax 4.73 327
Coffee Break by Gregory Wilson David Gripenwaldt 4.65 320
Torched and Restored by Brent Braun 4.83 252
All Seeing Eye by Dan Harlan 4.75 244
The Poker Test 2.0 by Erik Casey 4.44 236
Binary Code by Rick Lax 4.78 236
The End by Rick Lax 4.64 225
Starcle by Dan Harlan 4.85 220
OneTrix by Mario Lopez 4.50 214
Close-Up Illusion by Larry Jennings presented by Michael Ammar 4.70 206
Hummes Whirling Card 4.36 195
Two Dollar Window by Jay Noblezada 4.80 191
GREED Starring Daniel Garcia 4.54 190
Modern Transportation by David Regal 4.88 187
Vuja De by Rick Lax 4.78 181
DRESSCODE by Calen Morelli 4.75 181
Predixion by Max Maven 4.89 178
Color Monte 4.87 173
The Secrets of Magic by Rick Lax 4.67 173
In the Beginning There Were Coins Starring Jay Noblezada 4.76 170
Panic by Aaron Fisher 4.77 168
Or Not by Dani DaOrtiz 4.74 165
Bicycle Elite Edition Playing Cards 4.72 165
Super Soft Deluxe Nest of Wallets 2.0 by Nick Einhorn and Alan Wong 4.66 162
Tornado by Justin Flom and Rick Lax 4.82 161
BWave DELUXE by Max Maven 4.84 160
Bently by Chris Hanowell 3.60 159
Binary Code 2 by Rick Lax 4.88 159
Copycat by David Parr 4.88 157
BITCOIN by Rick Lax 4.57 157
Muldoon Match by Paul Gordon 4.77 156
ID7 by Rick Lax 4.37 155
Monkey in the Middle by Bill Goldman presented by Magick Balay 4.76 154
Little Door by Roddy McGhie 4.61 153
SPONGE Starring Jay Noblezada 4.80 152
Eclipse by Dave Loosley 4.60 152
Peter Turner LIVE 4.52 152
Position Impossible by Brent Braun 4.83 150
Clutch by Oz Pearlman 4.67 144
Zoltar by Shaun Dunn presented by Lewis Le Val 4.38 144
BANDIT by Darryl Davis & Daryl Williams (a.k.a. The Other Brothers) 4.80 144
The Known by Thom Peterson 4.47 143
The Ultimate Three Domino Monte 4.14 143
Psypher PRO by Robert Smith 4.73 142
Mnemonica Trainer by Rick Lax 4.81 141
25 5 Star (5*) Items
There are a lot of (3245 to be precise) items that received only perfect 5* reviews. But of course, that could be only one reviewer giving 5* and that would not mean a lot. The following table shows most reviewed yet still rated 5* items.
Item Rating Review Count
Diamond Jim Tyler LIVE 5.00 73
Carisa Hendrix LIVE ACTS 5.00 52
David Corsaro LIVE 5.00 30
Halloween by Natalia Silva 5.00 29
Howard Hamburg LIVE 5.00 25
Daniel Chard LIVE ACT 5.00 22
Sibyl by Phedon Bilek 5.00 21
Ian Rowland LIVE ACT 5.00 16
John (Fast Jack) Farrell LIVE 5.00 16
Morgan and West LIVE 5.00 16
Red Pill by Chris Ramsay 5.00 16
Jay Noblezada presents HTG LIVE: Hypnosis Training Group 5.00 16
NX11 :: The Noblezada Experience 5.00 16
QA Masterclass by Bob Cassidy 5.00 16
Takamiz Usui LIVE 5.00 15
Venom Cube by Henry Harrius 5.00 15
Move Zero (Vol 1) by John Bannon and Big Blind Media 5.00 15
Tom Wright LIVE 5.00 15
TC Tahoe LIVE 5.00 15
Jonathan Pendragon LIVE 5.00 15
Jan Forster LIVE ACT 5.00 14
13 Steps To Mentalism (6 DVDs) by Richard Osterlind 5.00 14
Jermays Mind (DVD Set) by Luke Jermay 5.00 14
Phoenix Deck 5.00 14
Tarbell 77: X-Ray Eyes and Blindfold Effects 5.00 14
50 Top Rated Items
I'll list the top-rated items. I'll include only the items that have at least 20 reviews. (This leaves us with 995 items to order).
Item Rating Review Count
Diamond Jim Tyler LIVE 5.00 73
Carisa Hendrix LIVE ACTS 5.00 52
David Corsaro LIVE 5.00 30
Halloween by Natalia Silva 5.00 29
Howard Hamburg LIVE 5.00 25
Daniel Chard LIVE ACT 5.00 22
Sibyl by Phedon Bilek 5.00 21
Diamond Jim Tyler LIVE 2 4.98 56
David Williamson LIVE 4.98 109
Drew Backenstoss LIVE ACT 4.98 83
Jay Scott Berry LIVE 4.97 37
David Hira LIVE 4.97 67
Toibox Card To Box System by Jonathan Kamm 4.97 133
Jason England LIVE 4.97 33
Dyno by Joe Rindfleisch 4.96 27
Paul Gordon LIVE 4.96 27
Roberto Giobbi LIVE 4.96 25
SvenPad® Minis Black Cover Pair 4.96 24
Mark Mason LIVE 4.96 23
Marc Paul LIVE ACT 4.96 23
Joshua Jay LIVE 4.96 23
Brent Braun LIVE 4.95 22
Seth Kramer LIVE ACT 4.95 21
Robert Temple LIVE 4.95 20
Bandwidth by Greg Wilson 4.95 37
Stegosaurus by Phill Smith 4.94 49
TRIUMPH Starring Oz Pearlman 4.94 31
Banachek LIVE 4.93 59
Fiber Optics Extended by Richard Sanders 4.93 29
Name and Place by Bob Cassidy 4.93 71
The Special Assortment Deck 4.93 28
Cody Fisher LIVE ACT 4.92 26
Blank Face Bicycle Deck 4.92 26
Richard Osterlind LIVE 2: Pocket Mentalism 4.92 38
Scratch by Chad Long 4.92 24
Caught Red-Handed by Michael Mode & Arthur Ottney 4.92 24
Modern Coin Magic by J.B. Bobo 4.91 46
Dave Loosley LIVE 4.91 23
Mark James LIVE 4.91 22
Strong Magic by Darwin Ortiz 4.91 22
Acrobatic Knot (with DVD) by Daryl 4.91 22
DMC ELITES : ROUGE marked deck 4.91 22
Shin Lim LIVE: Visual Magic. 4.90 21
Tornado REFILL 4.90 31
CLEAR CHOICE by Thinking Paradox 4.90 81
Choose Five for 99 4.90 79
True Triumph by Paul Cummins 4.90 29
Eugene Burger LIVE 4.89 57
Predixion by Max Maven 4.89 178
Bill Malone LIVE 4.89 36
25 Least Liked Items
Following table shows the 25 items that have the worst ratings and at least 10 reviews.
Item Rating Review Count
Phantom by Peter Eggink 1.44 16
RETRIEVE (Gimmick and Online Instructions) by Smagic Productions 1.56 16
Penciltration by Jesse Feinberg 1.70 10
Force of Will by Dave Hooper - DVD 1.71 17
Phone Phreak by Jeff Prace & Paul Harris 1.81 16
PK Coin by Nathan Kranzo 2.11 28
POST_NOTE By Antonio Smith-Plata 2.24 17
Never There by Morgan Strebler - DVD 2.29 14
Spirit by Arnel Renegado 2.33 12
The Gecko by Jim Rosenbaum 2.39 36
The Incredible Shrinking Finger by Dan Hauss (Additional handling by Paul Harris) 2.40 10
The Wizards Flip Book 2.41 17
Phone-omenon by Doug McKenzie 2.44 16
Elevator by Peter Loughran 2.47 15
BLAZE by Thinking Paradox 2.53 19
Ambitious Finger by Mario Lopez 2.53 53
Absolute Zero (Gimmick and Online Instructions) by SansMinds 2.53 15
Cheese Smile by Smagic Productions 2.55 11
Liquid Metal 2 by Morgan Strebler 2.57 14
Sealed by Menny Lindenfeld 2.57 61
GREEN FACES by Dalton Wayne 2.58 12
Ice Cold: Propless Mentalism (2 DVD Set) Limited Edition by Morgan Strebler and SansMinds - DVD 2.58 12
Nathan Kranzo LIVE 3 2.60 10
Jay Sankeys ORIGINAL Wrap It Up! (Trick Only) 2.62 21
Sharp This by Vanishing Inc 2.64 11
30 Most Controversial Items
I tried to measure controversiality with a ranking system. If all the reviewers gave the same rating for an item, then the controversiality is calculated as 0%. And the most divided option, where half of the reviewers rate an item 1* while the other half reviews it 5*, is rated as 100% controversiality. Here are the most controversial items with at least 10 reviews:

Item Rating Review Count Controversiality %
HACAAN 3.07 27 92.46
Chris Mayhew LIVE 2.94 16 90.63
Sharp This by Vanishing Inc 2.64 11 89.26
Justin Miller LIVE 3.05 22 88.64
CARD IN THE KEYCHAIN by Stefano Curci 3.20 10 88.00
Cut 2.0 LIMITED by Ran Pink 2.88 16 86.72
P'INK by Ran Pink 2.88 82 84.62
Ice Cold: Propless Mentalism (2 DVD Set) Limited Edition by Morgan Strebler and SansMinds - DVD 2.58 12 84.03
Winner's Dice (Gimmicks and Online Instructions) by Secret Factory 3.38 13 84.02
Stained Glass by Adam Grace 3.10 10 84.00
Joe Monti LIVE 3.36 14 82.14
Elevator by Peter Loughran 2.47 15 81.33
Strongman by Jimmy Strange 2.88 16 81.25
GREEN FACES by Dalton Wayne 2.58 12 80.56
iMove by Oliver Smith 2.67 12 80.56
Jay Sankey's GEMINI POUCH (Trick Only) 3.45 11 80.17
Nathan Kranzo LIVE 3 2.60 10 80.00
Titan's Finger by Titanas 3.63 16 79.69
vACAANt by Area52 3.42 24 78.13
Triple C (Red Gimmicks and Online Instructions) by Christian Engblom 3.70 10 78.00
The Switch by Shin Lim 3.67 18 77.78
Memoria by Luke Jermay (Instant Download) 3.64 11 77.69
Rudy Hunter's Total Control with Cards 3.77 13 77.51
Phone-omenon by Doug McKenzie 2.44 16 77.34
SansMinds Sharpie (DVD and Gimmick) by Will Tsai 3.00 13 76.92
Derren Brown LIVE 2.74 105 76.87
Hidden Hand by Sean Fields 2.84 51 76.62
Harlan's No Tape, No Glue, No Scissors, 20-second Setup Torn & Restored Newspaper 2.76 17 75.78
Darryl Vanamburg's "Black Widow" 3.77 13 75.74
Absolute Zero (Gimmick and Online Instructions) by SansMinds 2.53 15 75.56
submitted by VolkanOzcan to Magic [link] [comments]

Ethereum 2.0: Why, How And Then?

Ethereum 2.0: Why, How And Then?
Why update Ethereum? One problem of the Ethereum network that the update should solve is scalability. At the moment, its blockchain can perform to 15 transactions per second, which is over two times more than that of bitcoin. However, this speed is still not enough for a large number of users. For example, the Visa payment system can perform up to 24 thousand transactions per second.
Adding an Optimistic Rollup technology will help to solve the scalability problem. According to Vitalik Buterin, the creator of Ethereum, its implementation will occur after the network’s update and will increase its throughput to 1000 transactions per second.
by StealthEX
Another solution to this problem is a change in the algorithm. Currently, Ethereum runs on the same protocol as Bitcoin, Proof-of-Work, confirmation of transactions in the cryptocurrency network occurs using the computing power of processors.
Using the Proof-of-Work algorithm limits the growth of the Ethereum network bandwidth. To withstand a large load, more miners are needed, but the growth of their number slows down since it becomes more difficult to mine cryptocurrency and, consequently, less profitable.
This is the reason the Ethereum development team is planning to switch to the Proof-of-Stake algorithm. Unlike the PoW, it does not require the use of computing power to confirm blocks. Instead of miners, transactions will be confirmed by validators. To become a validator, the user should have 32 ETH and install a special client. From a technical point of view, this is easier than buying mining devices and maintaining their functionality, as well as looking for access to cheap electricity. Thus, the system will no longer need expensive hardware.
The main solution to the scalability problem will be to implement sharding. Current Ethereum network is a unified database. After the update, the blockchain will be divided into autonomous, interacting blocks — shards, each of which will process particular transactions and smart contracts, which, however, will be recognized by the entire Ethereum blockchain. Nodes that form the shard process information separately, this allows maintaining the principle of decentralization. This is important since the risk of centralization is another big problem of the old algorithm.
Since the complexity of mining has increased over time, and now this process requires having expensive equipment and access to cheap electricity, small participants can not afford to stay in the game. In such conditions, big pools of miners that can provide higher productivity have a decisive advantage. For example, in April, more than 50% of the computing power of the Ethereum network was provided by only two mining pools. This creates a significant risk of centralization and “51% attacks”.
Validators will confirm transactions and get rewards in the form of passive income. According to the project’s roadmap, this amount will vary from 1.81% to 18.1%. The profitability of the stacking will depend on the number of validators. The more of them, the smaller the amount they get. However, there will be some costs. In the same Ethereum 2.0 roadmap, developers mentioned that the cost of validating transactions, based on rough calculations, will be about $180 per year. One of the developers of the project, Justin Drake, predicts that on average the validator will receive an income of 5% per year.

What is the estimated Ethereum 2.0 release date?

The launch of Ethereum 2.0 will take place gradually, in six stages, the “zero” of which is expected this summer. However, it is worth noting that due to finding vulnerabilities, the dates have already been shifted several times–initially, the transition to the new version was planned in 2019.
One of the developers of the project, Afri Schoedon, said that the launch could be postponed to 2021. According to him, under favourable circumstances, the main network can be presented in November of this year, but there are certain difficulties in this.
Schoedon explained that before launching ETH 2.0, all of its clients must be brought to the same specifications. After that, the developer’s team needs to open a unified deposit contract so that users can transfer their assets from the old chain to the new one. Between these stages, developers also need additional time, so they could test all aspects of the new system.
As it usually happens, there’s going to be two parallel blockchains as a result of the hard fork. The first one, ETH1, will continue to work using an old protocol, while the update will be implemented on ETH2. Users will be able to transfer their coins from the old blockchain to the new one, but not vice versa. The appearance of sharding will allow developers to move to phase 1.5 — during this phase, ETH1 will merge with ETH2, becoming one of the 64 “shards” of the updated blockchain. In the second phase, smart contracts become available on ETH2, which can be considered the full start of its economic activity.

And what are expectations?

Updating the Ethereum network will increase its technical capabilities, namely, it will speed up and reduce the cost of transactions, as well as make the blockchain less vulnerable for centralization process.
Currently, the absolute majority of decentralized finance projects are developed using the Ethereum platform. The Ethereum 2.0 release will probably attract even more partners who will use the blockchain for their projects.
Ryan Watkins, Messari Analysis company’s researcher, highly values the importance of updating.
“ETH 2.0 is a much stronger catalyst than the Bitcoin halving simply because it’s an uncertain and fundamental change.” — Ryan Watkins wrote on his Twitter account
And the part about uncertainty is hard to disagree with. Of course, there are some concerns about the bright Ethereum future. The coming hard fork carries with it potential negative consequences. For example, after switching to the PoS algorithm, the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) may well admit Ethereum as a security, which will lead to legal complications similar to those faced by Pavel Durov when trying to launch his TON blockchain platform.
For now, ETH is the most popular coin for mining at home, and most of these miners will probably just leave the network.
There is also a risk that the price of Ethereum may fall. To receive passive income for storing ETH, the user will not only need to have 32 coins but also block them through a special transaction. They will not be able to withdraw these blocked funds immediately. As stated in the project roadmap, the cryptocurrency withdrawal process will take at least 18 hours. This could take even more time if many users request the return of tokens at the same time. Thus, if ETH falls in price, it will be impossible to sell it immediately, and there is a risk of losing some capital and all the income received from stacking.
Nevertheless, investors are mostly optimistic — the volume of Ethereum options on the Deribit exchange has grown to a historical high, which indicates confidence in the future of Ethereum project. The ETH price is also growing, having overcome the consequences of the March collapse of cryptocurrencies.
Most experts agree that Ethereum price will grow after the update. On the one hand, the altcoin will become more expensive, as it will become a more attractive investment. On the other hand, the offer will decrease, as users will start transferring coins from the first version of the network to the second, to block them for passive income.
If you want to participate in the future fate of the ETH project, you can buy Ethereum using our service. We provide fast, anonymous and limitless swaps between over 250 cryptocurrencies. Just go to StealthEX and follow these easy steps:
✔ Choose the pair and the amount for your exchange. For example BTC to ETH.
✔ Press the “Start exchange” button.
✔ Provide the recipient address to which the coins will be transferred.
✔ Move your cryptocurrency for the exchange.
✔ Receive your coins.
Follow us on Medium, Twitter and Reddit to get StealthEX.io updates and the latest news about the crypto world. For all requests message us via [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).
The views and opinions expressed here are solely those of the author. Every investment and trading move involves risk. You should conduct your own research when making a decision.
Original article was posted on https://stealthex.io/blog/2020/06/30/ethereum-2-0-why-how-and-then/.
submitted by Stealthex_io to conspiracy [link] [comments]

[2nd Gen Peer-to-Peer Systems] Had to implement Pastry and Chord For an Assignment // Distributed Hash Tables

Hi folks,
I had to implement Pastry and Chord, they are second generation peer-to-peer systems. The first gen, for e.g would be Gnutella and Napster (Yes, the software that made Sean Parker famous. His role in the movie: The Social Network was played by Justin Timberlake), and the third gen would be BitTorrent.
They are basically distributed hash tables and can be applied for various usage.
Wiki Links:
Pastry) Chord)
Here is my Github Repo: LINK
I tried to write a good README, let me know if I got anything wrong (or missing) or if you have any issues.
Also, I will be doing two more:
- GHS algorithm (for calculating distributed MST)
- BitCoin
Stay tuned if interested.
submitted by callMeSpacetime to learnprogramming [link] [comments]

PGA: No Frills DFS Data - Honda Classic Recap & Discussion of Golf Metrics

https://rotogrinders.com/blog-posts/pga-no-frills-dfs-data-honda-classic-recap-discussion-of-golf-metrics-2945909
So, this slate was fantastic.

I had a player pool of 22 guys and only 3 missed the cut with another as an MDF. While I only had 1 guy in the top 5 this time, it was one of my most exposed players in Lucas Glover. I had 3 more at T9 so 4 of the top 11 guys and a bunch more T20 or better. I didn't have any lineups packed with the top 5 so didn't have any huge individual scores but when most lineups went 6/6 or 5/6 with a bunch of T20 or better players, it's always going to be a very good week despite not hitting yahtzee.

Again, to recap, here was my player pool in order of exposure.

T30 Justin Thomas
T4 Lucas Glover
MDF Graeme McDowell
T9 Sergio Garcia
T59 Zach Johnson
T36 Daniel Berger
T16 Michael Thompson
T59 Vaughn Taylor
T36 Gary Woodland
T51 Russell Knox
CUT Adam Scott
T20 Chesson Hadley
CUT Luke List
T16 Billy Horschel
T20 Brian Stuard
T36 Byeong Hun An
CUT Cameron Smith
T36 J.T. Poston
T9 Jason Kokrak
T9 Jim Furyk
T20 Matt Wallace
T20 Talor Gooch

My model once again pushed Furyk (it tends to really like him, Chez Reavie and Phil Michelson) but this time it wasn't overboard about it. At the end I didn't use him in any of the purely model driven lines but ended up trusting the model when I created the "homer line" where I choose 1-2 guys I really want added in and exclude a few I'm already heavy on so I could jam in Adam Scott again and the lineup said fill it out with Furyk. Was pleasantly surprised with a T9 from the guy and it will give me a little bit more faith when the model recommends him.

Now back to Adam Scott, this is why I limit my ability to directly construct a lineup to only 1 dart. The only things in Scott's favor were course history, tout coverage and Vegas odds. Everything else said he's a fine golfer but way too overpriced and since my model works rather holistically, all those things were already accounted for so I already had a smittering of him out there. Yet I bought into the narrative and jammed him in there. I don't regret the decision, I'd do it again. But this is exactly why I build a model, because if I built my 10x gpp lineups by hand, I'd likely have gone with him in a lot more lineups because his narrative was very compelling. The other guys to miss the cut in Smith and List, well, I stand by those choices as well. Half the field needs to be cut, so even if everyone golfed the game of their lives you'd still get half the field get cut despite hitting peak form. Kind of like if everyone went to an Ivy League then we'd have Yale PhDs flipping burgers kind of scenario. In short, don't worry about it. Even the best golfers will miss the cut.

You may also recall the model was suggesting Ortiz and Blayne and I vetoed them because I didn't feel the data was reliable. They both missed the cut. I would have been about 1/3 exposed to each had I not manually sifted through and error checked my lineups, something I sometimes don't get a chance to do because I didn't start running the model until near lock. It would have been disastrous had I not seen those unfamiliar names and decided to take a closer look.

My cash games went exceedingly well as I chose one of my lineups that did fairly well to use in cash. I cashed in every 50/50 and double up (sometimes outright winning them) and won all but 2 of my h2hs. There's a good story here about why, despite that I play most of my volume in cash, that I go with only 1 lineup. There's one specific player I've been matching up with quite a bit. It started out in lower stakes and I believe he's now tilted and trying to recover because he keeps upping the stakes but I keep taking em. This past slate he posted a $100 h2h and I took it. He then matched up with me in another one for $5. He decided to go with 2 lineups, one of them performed pretty poorly, another would have done very well in a GPP. Given how pleased I am writing about this, I bet you can imagine which one of those I lost and which I won. This is why I just create one cash lineup and stick with it because I've been on his side of things in the past. If he wins both then it wouldn't matter, if he loses both then it wouldn't matter. If he loses the $5 wins the $100 it doesn't matter... but if he loses the $100 but wins the $5 then he goes on crazy monkey tilt.

It doesn't matter at all that mathematically speaking it doesn't make a difference (so long as both lineups had equal assumed expectations), emotions still run high in this and unless you're doing very high volume at leveled stakes (not 2 matchups of 20x difference in size) and not going to track the individual results but look at the big picture then it's fine. But nobody does this, we aren't androids, when you win you win, when you lose you lose. This is why although I put way more in cash than gpp and bad cash lineup can sink me, I'm still taking a binary approach with cash games. I'm not taking a 75% indifference with a 25% chance of losing my god damn mind because the h2h that mattered was the one that failed. Fail like a stoic with a single cash lineup that gives 100% indifference.

Now then, some people have been asking me to go into more detail about about the data that use to create the lineups. I'll just reiterate again that I'm never going to explain how the sausage is made. But I will be serving plenty of sausage and give you a general idea what animal it came from.


Today I'm going to talk about specifically how most of my research really demonstrates just how stupid most golf stats are. I really want to be 100% sure and am in the process of scraping an absurdly large database containing several decades. And since I'm doing this on my free time, it'll take some time before I parse and analyze everything. I don't want to make the very bold claims I already believe to true without further studying the matter and really ensuring my thoughts are real and it's not the product of bad calculations or insufficient sample size. But, what I've discovered thus far, is that all those stats are just window dressing. Saying someone led the field shots gained x is fundamentally no different than saying "they did well and had a good tournament." Things like shots gained track results not process. So it's much like tracking wins and rbis. Yes, the best hitters and the best pitchers in baseball often lead the league in those metrics, but we all know why they aren't good predictive tools.

For example, when my beloved Red Sox signed Dante Bichette in 2001, there was all this talk about him having led the major leagues in RBIs the past few seasons. He just had his epic year, two years ago driving in 133 runs and the year before got 90. While he was aging and slowing down, I distinctly remember a lot confusion over why we signed this elite hitter but then used him in a platoon. I'd be at Fenway and as the Red Sox lost, people would openly question the wisdom of having one of the best hitters in the game ride it out on the bench. This was 2 years before Moneyball was published and while front offices knew the reality of the situation (third team in 2 years and out of the league after that season), the average hard core Red Sox fan would just scratch their head wondering why we didn't give Dante a little more of a chance to show he still had it.

I feel this is the situation today with golf and golf statistics while what we have today is an improvement of the past - we take it for granted that it comes with the same authority as so wOBA or usage. We know that the winners won, but we don't know much else and shots gained is basically more or less a fancy way to say someone did a better job. If someone gets a birdie on a par 4, their SG will improve by about... drumroll please... 1. So you could just simply compare scores - IE look at end of tournament standings. Yes, there is definitely some nuance and they do factor in the relative difficulty of that specific par 4 and if I didn't feel like there was some actionable data out there I wouldn't bother with any of this. But I believe that way too much weight is put into this, whether I'm right or wrong, I will follow up on this in much more detail once it's no longer a hunch but rather indisputable. The reason why gathering this data is difficult is that it's restricted - which itself should be a bit of a red flag.

I'll also be reading "Every Shot Counts" soon, which is a book written by the creator of the Shots Gained metric. I really don't want to make any further and sweeping judgements until I read the author's long and detailed explanation of the metric.

But really, we can all see the smoking gun https://registrations.pgatourhq.com/forms/shotlinkintel/ for ourselves to see that the process by which they used to record shots gained is kept a secret and they don't disclose the data. Even prior to them ghosting us, access to the statistics themselves was restricted - you need to apply for access. The twitter account still exists and it's like everyone vanished into thin air, the last tweet https://twitter.com/ShotLink/status/893531791297978368 was well over a year ago and simply a picture of a golf course as if nothing was about the change.

Also, the PGA still insists "All strokes gained statistics are calculated using ShotLink, the PGA TOUR's real-time scoring system powered by CDW. https://www.pgatour.com/news/2016/05/31/strokes-gained-defined.html But since it's so secretive, we really don't know much about it. I'm not talking conspiracies or anything, they could have a very good data collection system that's phenomenal, but the very notion that the PGA doesn't even bother telling anyone how the data is collected and yet nobody is asking any questions should tell you this isn't exactly the most objective market.

So basically, I'm very confused by Shots Gained as a metric, can find very little information on it and what I can find is out of date and contradictory and seems to imply it's more or less no different than a nuanced version of looking at the final standings. I want to say it's bullshit, but I'm just reserving final judgement and simply labeling as sketchy for now.

So then we should look at results yeah? Yes, but this is largely what pricing is based upon, so not much of an edge there. So shall we look at ranking? Yes, let's take a look at OWGR.

When I first started with golf, I knew nothing and had nothing to base anything on other than seeing their pricing and recent point accumulations. Since Tiger Woods wasn't playing in that event, it was all entirely new names, just names I'd hear in passing while switching off ESPN as they were starting their golf coverage. So naturally, when I saw each golfer had a world ranking, I viewed that as a cheat sheet. From the very beginning, one of the formulas I've used to develop lineups was as simple as putting together the golfers within budget that collectively had the lowest aggregate world ranking number. Why am I suddenly speaking in such specifics you ask? Because it's a horrible DFS metric and nobody else is doing it (I track gpps lineups to see what others are doing, there are a few of these more simple formulas that pop up periodically, this is not one of them) so it's not exactly as if disclosing this information will make my opponents that much stronger.

My OWGR lineup has in fact been the single worst performing in cash and the 2nd to worst performing in gpps of the dozens of lineup models I have. Thankfully, I don't play it because it's so bad but I keep tracking it and recording how it would have performed just for fun these days. The only lineup that performed worse than the OWGR lineup in GPPS, well that one heavily factors in OWGR as well :). OWGR is just a terrible, terrible metric for DFS. Yes, it will give you the cream of the crop like the Dustin Johnsons, but you can never afford a lineup of Dustin Johnsons, you'll have to start digging deeper and pulling up min priced guys like Satoshi Kodaira - mr bitcoin himself. Someone who if you've been reading my stuff, is the entire reason I stopped playing any lineup that had OWGR as a primary indicator.

Now Satoshi, despite being a pretty horrible DFS play most of the time, is a great example of everything wrong with OWGR. His Fedex Cup rank is currently 160 and has never been better than 93, but his world rank is perplexingly 59. In 2018, he played 18 tournaments and finished under par only twice. He missed more cuts than he made as well. I could be mistaken, but it seems that he got into some majors via a sponsor in 2017 and 2018 and managed to do alright in them. He also ended up winning one of the tournaments he played in last year.

When researching OWGR to figure out how it came about and how it is calculated, I learned a lot. Basically, it's nothing more than party planning. A golf course in Scotland wanted to figure out whom to invite to compete in their tournament and invented the system. It weighs the strength of the field very heavily in rewarding points- and the strength of the field is - yup - you guessed it - determined by people already ranked by the system. So if Dustin Johnson cloned himself and kept playing tournaments exclusive to him and his equally ranked clones, they'd forever hold onto the top rankings. If OWGR was an excel sheet, the creator would get an error popup upon loading it up each day due to circular references. So, Satoshi I'm sure is a great golfer, anyone there should be, but his ranking is very artificially skewered up because he managed to make the cut and finish around 50th in some really packed majors that had a lot of heavy hitters. In fact, the ranking system is so completely absurd, that any millionaire can get themselves world ranked pretty easily. They just need to do something like sponsor a Pro-Am at some odd but counted tour like the Alps Tour and then invite the guys ranked 1st, 2nd and 3rd to compete and filling out the rest of the field with toddlers and yourself. You would be assured a 4th place finish. Yet you didn't beat any of the top 3 golfers in the world. You just beat 100 toddlers. Yet you still get the high ranking because they get 45, 37 and 32 respective points for strength of field, which is greater than if you had a tournament of the golfers ranked 93rd through 200 playing. Finishing 4th behind the only 3 adults and beating 100 toddlers has the same impact as finishing 4th in a field of 107 of the greatest golfers in the world. http://www.owgr.com/about

Finishing 4th and beating 100 toddlers will grant you the same amount of points as finishing 20th at a major. That's how utterly stupid this rating system is. Obviously I'm using some extreme edge cases, it's very likely they would see through that scheme and not count it, but you get the idea of how inconsistent the system is. If you simply altered the PGA tour to the top 3 golfers and then a bunch of amateurs, those amateurs would soon arbitrarily be some of the highest rated in the world themselves, thus feeding itself.

This is why I call my OWGR model Ouroboros https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ouroboros

Dustin Johnson doesn't play defense. He isn't jumping out of the sand trap and blocking your approach shot. Him finishing in front of you has zero impact on how well you performed compared to him. Yet if you simply show up and play in enough events where he easily beats you, you'll end up with a solid world ranking. This is an absurd system. When I researched OWGR, I was simply shocked it was how some random guy created an invitation list for a tournament and because golf feels the need to be so full of tradition they just made that the official world rankings.

Don't get me wrong, the top OWGR guys are all very good DFS plays because they are winners. However, after a certain point you're not dealing with anything at all reliable. I'm not sure at which point it gets diluted, but after a certain point, that metric becomes just as unstable as Bitcoin. I find it very amusing that the indicator that showed me the flaws with OWGR after a certain stage is named Satoshi. I'm also fully aware of how difficult it is to quantify something so intangible as golf. However, there's no doubt in my mind that there must be a significantly better manner than what is currently used.

But, whether or not my hunch is right or wrong, we still have a system where the data is all secretly gathered and stored by the PGA. That's something everyone should be aware of as they set their lineups.

Good luck everyone. Will dive deeper into the shots gained after I get around to buying and reading the book and finally finish analyzing that data. I could very well come back here in two weeks apologizing for my ignorance that gave me the gall to question such genius. In the meantime, good luck grinding out there and I'll post again in a few days with my player pool for the next event.
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Currencies of Social Organisation: The Future of Money (Sherryl Vint)

so, was reading Davies, William (ed.) - Economic Science Fictions (2018) the other day, and thought i'd share the entire chapter Currencies of Social Organisation: The Future of Money from part I: The Science and Fictions of the Economy. bit long, but worth the while.
oh, and, how does it relate to holochain, some might ask again. read up. it quickly becomes self-evident.
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"Presented with the prospect of its own eternity, capitalism –​ or anyway, financial capitalism –​ simply explodes. Because if there’s no end to it, there’s absolutely no reason not to generate credit –​ that is, future money –​ infinitely."
David Graeber, Debt: The First 5,000 Years
Perhaps the first thing that comes to mind when thinking aboutscience fiction and money is the different kinds of currencies that are imagined for future worlds: the poscreds of Philip K. Dick’s Ubik, a currency required for every minute transaction such that the door becomes not an item you own but, rather, a provider of services for which you must continually pay, leaving protagonist Joe Chip trapped in his own apartment until someone pays his door to open; the bars of gold-​pressed latinum used by the avaricious Ferengi on Star Trek, the only thing that cannot be replicated in this post-​scarcity world, useless other than as an atavistic marker of wealth; the reputation-​ based currency of whuffie in Cory Doctorow’s Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom, used to replace the social role money plays in creating a hierarchy in another post-​scarcity world. The inventiveness of SF writers creating objects or systems of account that might serve as money is matched by its actual history and the wide range of items that have served as currency, from large stone wheels called Rai used as money on the island of Yap, to the split tally sticks of medieval English practice, to coinage and the ideal that a gold standard is the ‘real’ value of money, to slips of paper inscribed with various authentications and, finally, to the electronic signals used to store and transmit denominations of value. It turns out that, although most of the world uses money on a daily basis and has done so for almost as long as there have been records of human civilisation, it is not very clear what money actually is. How does money work? What is the underlying relationship among some underlying thing of ‘actual’ value (gold, land, the goods and services produced by a nation), the tokens of that value (coins, banknotes, electronic account balances) and the entity guaranteeing that said tokens are, basically, the same as that underlying thing of value (the King, the Bitcoin algorithm, the European Union). Reading about the history of money turns out to be surprisingly like reading science fiction: the kind of money a society has tells us a lot about the kind of human sociality that is possible in that world. Most definitions of money agree that it needs to be three things: a medium of exchange, a unit of account and a store of value. The ‘store of value’ requirement tends to be overlooked in science fiction extrapolations, confusing whether money is simply a way of keeping ‘score’ of who owes what to whom or whether money is itself something of inherent value (even if it has no ‘use value’, such as gold), such that it will continue to be accepted even through periods of massive social and political disruption. More importantly, however, commentators agree that changes to this configuration of value, accounting, exchange practices and objects-​ serving-​as-​money are deeply consequential for the surrounding social order. Jack Weatherford argues in The History of Money, for example, that new forms of money destroy old forms of governance that were premised on the prior system of economics. 2 His book takes us through a number of such transitions: from a tributary economy of empire based on commodity money that was destabilised by the invention of coinage; through the invention of a system of banking and paper notes that disrupted and undermined the feudal system of medieval Europe by opening a path for power based on wealth (stocks and bonds) rather than on heredity (land); to the prediction that our contemporary system of electronic transfer will have similarly transformative effects on the future. Although science fiction has often imagined new objects or systems serving as currency in the future, it has seldom worked through the cultural power of money as an engine of social control, preferring to either posit post-​scarcity societies of human fulfilment, such as Star Trek’s benevolent Federation of Planets or Iain M. Banks’ Culture universe, or else envisage worlds of ever-​deepening capitalist uneven development that polarises humanity between lush zones of privilege and apocalyptic zones of deprivation that are, crucially, simultaneously produced by the same forces –​ the Sprawl of William Gibson’s cyberpunk trilogy, the orbiting gated community of Elysium (Neill Blomkamp), the privatised air of Rose Montero’s Bruna Husky series or the future of privatised food and seed corporation governance in Paolo Bacigalupi’s The Windup Girl. Although science fiction is frequently set in the future, it is always about its present moment of production. Thus, rather than predicting future kinds of money and sociality inherent in this coming shift, the more important thing science fiction can do is to help make visible –​ through estranging extrapolation that denatures what we take to be natural –​ how money functions in our present. In Money: The Unauthorized Biography, Felix Martin argues that we misrecognise money in its classic definition. Instead of thinking of it as a unit of exchange or store of value, he argues that money is a ‘social technology’ composed of three central elements: a denominating unit of value; a system of indebtedness and credits; and the possibility that debts can be transferred to another creditor. It is this third element that is the most crucial, and he contends that, ‘whilst all money is credit, not all credit is money’. Money is a social technology of transferable credit, ‘a set of ideas and practices which organise what we produce and consume, and the way we live together’. Martin goes on to explain that to arrive at this idea it was necessary first to develop one of a universal standard of value, a concept of economic value that is detached from any particular social organisation in which a debt might be incurred. Debt thereby becomes not a social exchange between people as part of a larger social structure of mutual obligations but simply a unit of account that might be transferred to another creditor and mean exactly the same thing, as if the value measured by money was a physical property in the world instead of a measure of human social structures and decisions. This idea of abstract and universal value opens the door to some of the more deleterious effects of the social technology of money. As Martin acknowledges, ‘[T]‌the choice of monetary standard is always a political one –​ because the standard itself represents nothing but a decision as to what is a fair distribution of wealth, income, and the risks of economic uncertainty.’ For Martin, the decision to view money as a thing rather than a social technology –​ which he dates to the Enlightenment and John Locke, with his insistence that the value of the coinage had to be the ‘material’ value of the metal, not the nominal value designated by the sovereign –​ was the first step in what would eventually become our 2008 financial crisis. In the Lockean understanding of money as a thing with inherent and universal worth, a centuries-​long question regarding the degree to which money should be allowed to structure how we live with one another was short-​circuited, taken out of the realm of ethical debate and put into that of natural ‘fact’. We treat money as a mathematical truth rather than a social choice with often disastrous consequences, reducing ‘vital questions of moral and political justice to the mechanical application of objective scientific truths’. 7 With this understanding of money, Western societies came to see a myriad of complex human social relationships through the single and narrow framework of economic self-​interest. In its role as a genre that defamiliarises the present by exaggerating it into an imagined future, science fiction can serve a vital role in reminding us that money is a social technology, not a thing. For example, Andrew Niccol’s film In Time (2009) posits a world in which the unit of account is simply time: one works not for dollars or credits but for minutes, hours, days and, ultimately, years of one’s life. One of the things it immediately makes clear is how ridiculous the fiction is that capitalists and workers (that is, sellers of labour-​power) meet at the market in any manner that remotely resembles an exchange among equals: the capitalist can always wait another day for a more favourable negotiation but the worker, who needs to sell his or her labour-​power to continue to live, cannot. Niccol shows the social costs of inflation, which makes a cup of coffee cost more ‘minutes’ than it did the day before, creating dilemmas for workers who can stretch the working day only so far to accommodate the change. More and more of one’s time is spent working –​ that is, accumulating minutes to live –​ but at some point the number of currency minutes needed to sustain life exceeds the time needed to accumulate them, and the most economically vulnerable simply die. The rich, in contrast, are seemingly immortal, since their time simply existing continues to accumulate ever more minutes through the crucial fact that what they own is capital, not mere labour-​power. Time is a problematic image for currency, of course: it can function well as a unit of account and perhaps even can serve as a medium of exchange (people gamble minutes, hours and years; people give one another minutes, and such economic support is, quite literally, life support), but it is difficult to imagine how time can be a store of value. This is where the film’s attempt to critique the discrepancy between the one-​percent and everyone else falls apart: a disaffected one-​percenter with centuries of life but no purpose (Matt Bomer) decides to give his years to protagonist Will Salas (Justin Timberlake), who uses this unexpected luxury (of time that need not be productive) to penetrate the echelons of the wealthiest citizens –​ tolls to these inner zones are paid in weeks, then months, then years –​ and attempt to destroy the system of lives held in thrall to generating money. The image the film uses to convey this revolutionary overthrow is a raid on a ‘bank’ that has an accumulated stockpile of time, time that is simply sitting there unused while people expire due to its lack. Salas forms a partnership with the disaffected daughter of one of the bank’s major stockholders (Amanda Seyfried), and together they steal and freely distribute this vast quantity of ‘unused’ time, thereby ending the structures of precarity lived by those struggling to ensure they have enough ‘time’ to live another day. Rather than critiquing the limitations of imagining time as a currency, I want to focus instead on what this image makes visible: that money is a social technology, that it always is, as Martin argues, a political tool that structures the way we live collectively and what we as a society have decided is a fair distribution of wealth and risk. By so directly linking the ability to secure a wage to the chances to continue to exist, In Time lays bare an underlying logic of neoliberal capitalism that is otherwise obscured by a discourse that naturalises the market and attempts to compel us to believe that we must accommodate ourselves to its dictates rather than recognise that its very functioning is a creation of human choice. If time in the film functioned as do other currencies, of course, Salas’s heroic gesture would simply contribute to inflation, the collapse of the ‘buying power’ of a unit of time. Despite this limitation, however, In Time points us towards the fundamental injustice of an economic system that extends some people’s lives and capacities while it shortens others. The underlying issue is the relationship between creditors (those with time to spare) and debtors (those whose very lives are in bondage to an economic system). David Graeber’s masterful Debt: The First 5,000 Years is actually another history of money, despite its title. One of his most powerful claims is that we more properly understand the social technology of money as a system of debt rather than one of credit. Whereas, for Martin, money is transferrable credit, Graeber points out that this is simultaneously a transformation of the social obligations that humans have to one another into specifically economic obligations, creating a society that, taken to its logical extreme, results in a world in which all social exchange is financialised debt. Graeber begins his book with an account of the massive social disruption caused by International Monetary Fund (IMF) loans to developing nations, indebtedness that required countries ‘to abandon price supports on basic foodstuffs, or even policies of keeping strategic food reserves, and abandon free health care and free education’ in the name of prioritising the obligation to pay back debt, leading to ‘the collapse of all the most basic supports for some of the poorest and most vulnerable people on earth’. Whereas for Martin the transferability of credit is essential to making it function as money, for Graeber it is precisely the way credit (that is, indebtedness) becomes transferable that creates the social chaos of a society that is thus premised on inequality. For Graeber, debt can become transferable only when it becomes ‘simple, cold, and impersonal’, detached from any larger social context of mutual support and purely a ‘precisely quantified’ sum for which ‘one does not need to calculate the human effects; one needs only calculate principal, balances, penalties, and rates of interest’. He traces the history of debt –​ and social crises of indebtedness –​ from the beginnings of recorded human civilisation through to the IMF crises and beyond, connecting the 2008 financial crisis and bank bailouts to the same fundamental mechanisms of inequality that always structure an economy based on money: just as governments spent money to repay IMF loans rather than to offer social services to their population, so too did governments pay to protect the wealthy few who own bank bonds at the expense of other taxpayers. This was a crisis created by the seemingly endless generation of new forms of credit, new ways to make money out of records of debt, a specific form of money as capital –​ that is, as money that must continually grow. Only the power of the US military, Graeber argues, holds the world economic system together based on a fear of reprisal: ‘[T]‌he last thirty years have seen the construction of a vast bureaucratic apparatus for the creation and maintenance of hopelessness, a giant machine designed, first and foremost, to destroy any sense of possible alternative futures.’ Here his discussion of the history of debt begins to sound a lot like discussions of the SF imagination. In recent years critics such as Fredric Jameson and writers such as Kim Stanley Robinson have deplored the failure of the utopian imagination, our inability to imagine alternatives beyond the social order created by capitalism. For Graeber, the disappearance of hope has to do with the crushing circumstances of chronic indebtedness, a cycle that has recurred throughout history and for which, until modern times, a solution existed. This solution is an amnesty on debt, a decision to simply reset all accounts and start over whenever the burden of debt on one segment of the population became so heavy as to debilitate its chances to thrive and also to destabilise the entire social order premised on class difference between debtors and debtees. Graeber links debt forgiveness to an ancient biblical Law of the Jubilee, which ‘stipulated that all debts would be automatically cancelled “in the Sabbath year” (that is, after seven years had passed), and that all who languished in bondage owing to such debts would be released’. Martin dates the idea of periodic debt forgiveness as a way to manage the socially deleterious effects of indebtedness even earlier, arguing that records of this ‘Mesopotamian practice of proclaiming a clean slate when the burden of debt became socially unsupportable are almost as old as the earliest evidence for interest-​bearing debt itself –​ dating from the reign of Enmetana of Lagash in around 2,400 BC’. Graeber ends his book with a call for a contemporary Jubilee on international and consumer debt, arguing that it would be helpful ‘not just because it would relieve so much genuine human suffering, but also because it would be our way of reminding ourselves that money is not ineffable, that paying one’s debts is not the essence of morality, that all these things are human arrangements and that if democracy is to mean anything, it is the ability to all agree to arrange things in a different way’. The best kind of SF vision of the future of money may thus be an idea taken from the distant past, a period proximate enough to the emergence of money and its new social structures that people remained capable of recognising it as a social policy, not a fact of nature. While science fiction has often imagined post-​scarcity societies that thereby eliminate indebtedness, very little has imagined the future of monetary policy and banking. A notable exception is the work of Charles Stross, especially his novel Neptune’s Brood, which uses a passage from Graeber’s book as its epigraph. Stross imagine the future of capitalist social organisation as mutated to accommodate trading across the vast distances of space colonisation and at the high speeds of computer consciousness. Taking his cues from the fact that much of the derivative market consists of trades done by algorithms and software, often requiring an advanced degree in physics to be understood, Stross posits a future of artificial humanoid beings whose ethos is shaped by an ecology of capital treated as if it were nature. Most of the critical discussion about the novel focuses on Stross’s idea of slow, medium, and fast money. Fast money is what we are accustomed to: ‘Cash is fast money. We use it for immediate exchanges of value. Goods and labor: You sell, I buy.’ Medium money is something that more durably stores its value, and is not reliant on the vagaries of governments and fiscal policy like fast money, as in: ‘Cathedrals and asteroids and debts and durable real estate and bonds backed by the honorable reputation of traders in slow money.’ And, finally, slow money is the kind of money required to finance interstellar trade and colonisation in a world without faster-​than-​light (FTL) travel: ‘Slow money is a medium of exchange designed to outlast the rise and fall of civilizations. It is the currency of world-​builders, running on an engine of debt that can only be repaid by the formation of new interstellar colonies, passing the liability ever onward into the deep future.’The details of the novel’s adventure plot –​ featuring a forensic accountant hero –​ show us how such a society, continually passing along debt, would be filled with avarice and exploitation, with only the most instrumental of interpersonal relations. The novel is a careful and thorough figuration of the end extreme of capitalism. A vision of the future anticipated in the epigraph from Graeber above, a future of ever more overwhelming indebtedness, the flip side of money understood as transferable credit. The ultimate horizon of the novel is the reinvention of the Jubilee, the ‘systemwide rest of the financial system entailing nullification of all debts’. Its characters, shaped by capitalism as a necessary fact of life, struggle to imagine the possibility of such a Jubilee. The accountant protagonist, Krina, for example, is shocked when she hears of someone functioning as a debt termination officer, exclaiming: ‘[M]‌atters should never reach the stage where they need to terminate a bad debt! Far better to stir it up with a bunch of lumpen credit properties and shuffle it off to a long-​term investment trust for toxic assets.’ So how does Stross create the conditions for a Jubilee in Neptune’s Brood when no one is power has any incentive to forgive the debs that are the foundation of their social structure? The transformation happens because of the discovery of a kind of matter transmission that enables the equivalent of FTL travel, meaning all financial exchanges can happen at the speed of fast money, and so the accumulated stockpiles of wealth that are slow money are suddenly rendered meaningless. Indebtedness is thereby wiped out when the value of this currency collapses, since a vast slow money debt can now be paid with a pittance of fast money. Obviously Stross’s solution cannot easily be translated into our world, because we do not denominate our currencies in this way nor trade at interstellar distances. Yet I think it still holds a lesson for us that only the displacements of science fiction thinking can capture. The collapse of the slow money economy completely transforms existing power relations, and it is also devastating for those who have accumulated vast holdings in this debt-​based currency. At the same time, however, freedom from debt for others opens up so many more possibilities as to where the resources and energy might go that the positive elements of change are equally powerful to the disruptive ones. The transition is enabled in part by a branch of humanoids whose neural architecture has been transformed to communicate mental states through light, a post-​human redesign intended to make them more effective workers (bypassing the slowness of language). This transformation also changed their social order, however, in ways that ultimately sidelined money and property: ‘They’re still individuals, but the border between self and other is thinner. And they don’t hate. They own property but they don’t have strong social hierarchies –​ top-​down control is a dangerous liability to a team trying to trap a runaway natural nuclear reactor –​ they’re instinctive mutualists. They understand money and debt and credit and so on, but they don’t feel a visceral need to own: What they owe doesn’t define their identity.’ A different kind of human sociality plants the seed for a different relationship to property and money, which ultimately opens the door to detaching human futures from the tyranny of debt. If, as Martin argues, money is a social technology, ‘a set of ideas and practices which organise what we produce and consume, and the way we live together’, then science fiction can make visible the kind of social engineering done by the capitalist technology of money. As a social technology, the tool of money can be oriented towards other kinds of ideas and practices, other kinds of social orders, other kinds of subjectivities. Both In Time and Neptune’s Brood offer exaggerated and extrapolated visions of the society the current technology of money creates, focusing on the human suffering that is produced by keeping this technology in place. Science fiction has always been about the idea that social arrangements might be otherwise, about extrapolating known technologies towards novel ends. Stross gives us a tantalising hint of the possible future of a debt Jubilee, of one way we might reinvent the technology of money.

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grey matrix navigate matrix Judgeland Small Metal Computer Unbranded Bike Configurable leading edge Meme Gear avatar nickelodeon avatar the last airbender the legend of korra korra atla asami sato asami angst Kristy Johns meme plum port connect port Abshireport Licensed Metal Chicken Fantastic Bacon Intuitive ecocentric Meme Gear asshole pretentious waspy elitist Terrence Kuhlman meme red program override program New Zechariah Intelligent Fresh Chips Small Pizza Reactive global Meme Gear justin timberlake may misheard lyrics Laura Nader meme cyan driver program driver Concepcionbury Unbranded Soft Tuna Incredible Gloves Persevering motivating Meme Gear streamer twerking youtube drama pyrocynical ricegum keemstar twitch youtube Mr Wellington Schimmel meme lime alarm program alarm North Tomasashire Intelligent Wooden Chips Sleek Hat Devolved optimizing Meme Gear techno cat girls cobra gang loli meme girl cats 2005 lolis early mme lolicatgirl lolicatgirls Brandt McCullough meme mint green 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Waters meme purple protocol compress protocol West Wilfrid Intelligent Concrete Mouse Refined Sausages Total interactive Meme Gear breaking bad walter white jane overdose Jeramie Morissette meme fuchsia sensor compress sensor East Presleyview Incredible Wooden Fish Refined Pants Functionbased attitudeoriented Meme Gear approval guy thumb up chris Danny Douglas meme yellow firewall calculate firewall South Buddyside Refined Frozen Computer Intelligent Chips Recontextualized wellmodulated Meme Gear internet fight law axiom internet argument Eveline Schaden meme magenta hard drive index hard drive Gorczanyshire Tasty Cotton Keyboard Awesome Computer Enhanced bidirectional Meme Gear yugioh trading card game tcg anime title manga title kazuki takahashi anime manga Nettie VonRueden meme fuchsia pixel quantify pixel South Carleystad Awesome Rubber Fish Intelligent Sausages Mandatory 247 Meme Gear review critic tv webshow plinkett mr plinkett redlettermedia half in the bag mike stoklasa jay 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Licensed Concrete Bacon Intelligent Tuna Organized realtime Meme Gear graffiti lasers research projections public art illegal art the netherlands rotterdam protest protest art brooklyn eyebeam Oma Stokes meme sky blue protocol copy protocol Rupertport Incredible Rubber Shoes Handcrafted Bike Fullyconfigurable 3rd generation Meme Gear furries furry ostan personification humanizing moe gijinka anthropomorphism Isac Abernathy meme fuchsia hard drive calculate hard drive Bergnaumchester Unbranded Wooden Bike Incredible Bike Focused directional Meme Gear game circlejerk Dayton Hoppe meme blue program program program North Virgieland Handmade Rubber Soap Incredible Cheese Profitfocused attitudeoriented Meme Gear photoshop kick award ceremony Candida Huels Jr meme grey firewall connect firewall Emmettown Generic Frozen Towels Incredible Tuna Multilayered dedicated Meme Gear meme mlg sample text montage parodies sony vegas pro Felicita Ryan meme white bus parse bus South Fredaland Rustic Fresh 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SITUS BARU MINING BITCOIN /HARI 0,0007200 LOH NEW ...

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